Wireless Standards

While it’s possible to create a private network “island” of 4G or 5G connected solutions a more realistic scenario is the co-existence of multiple networks supporting your use cases and handling data, mobility and use case specific issues with the best fit technology.

Xpect Connect will provide uncluttered visibility as our best interest is your best interest!

 In general alignment to IEEE and 3GPP based standards will provide a bigger ecosystem but there are occasional exceptions.

4G (LTE) : Billions of devices globally deployed, bands and devices specific to areas needed; large ecosystem of devices and tried and true security ; bands are licensed and protected from interference
5G : Stand-Alone (SA) and Non Stand-Alone (NSA) refers to deployments that can exist entirely in the 5G realm, or deployments that leverage existing 4G components
5G : FR1 and FR2 refers to the general frequency range of the deployment ; FR2 are high frequency bands (mmWave or uWave) with a very high data capacity but short range , while FR1 bands are aligned with the more commonly deployed bands similar to LTE that have very large coverage scenarios for outdoors or high capacity for indoors
CBRS : Unique to USA, it’s a specific cellular band that currently supports LTE protocol operation and (soon) 5G protocol ; this is the workhorse of Private Cellular in the USA ; it is lightly licensed and has protection from interferers while enjoying the benefits and stability of LTE equipment, devices, SW and operating protocols
Cat M and NB-IOT : A low power (and low data) standard included within the 4G and 5G framework ; battery powered devices with long life - different end devices and select bands compared to the the mainstream 4G and 5G devices
LoRa : Proprietary network standard developed for low power and Long Range battery powered sensor communications needs ; some classes of devices support reduced downlink latency for actuators
Sigfox: Similar to LoRa in terms of low power, long range for IoT devices; also operates in unlicensed bands and uses proprietary technology for the devices
Ingenu : Another LoRa competitor for long range and low power sensors operating in unlicensed bands; has had several mis steps and reboots as a company
WiFi 5 : Most commonly used connection technology in use today ; run on unlicensed bands shared by all devices
WiFi 6 / 6E : Newer WiFi standard that has certain benefits like supporting more simultaneous connected devices and a more efficient scheduling mechanism ; 6E adds new spectrum increasing the total capacity of a 6E network ; requires compatible AP and devices but AP is backwards compatible with older devices on network ; still unlicensed in operation
Satellite : sometimes needed for remote connections where terrestrial networks are not available at all; links to data centers, core networks, authentication servers, limited internet and maybe even voice ; could be stationary or mobile
New Satellite Broadband : low earth orbit networks promising lower latency and higher throughput to devices ; this is up and coming technology that will have applications for difficult to reach places
Unlicensed Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint : Most commonly used for wireless broadband internet distribution but has applications for building connectivity, backhaul, remote cameras or other limited distance and mobility needs
Licensed Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint : Uses bands that require FCC (or equivalent) licensing so when utilized under your license terms it is a dedicated channel and protected from interference; mostly commonly used for backhaul, remote camera clusters, or bridging multiple sites with high capacity links that would be difficult via wired structure

Example of Broad Network Knowledge Need :

Smart City Deployment

CBRS LTE Private Network used for : connected worker devices ; internet access for underserved population segments (health and education access) ; remote camera safety ; traffic cameras; Air Quality monitoring stations
LTE with MNO : phones; same as CBRS for locations where CBRS isn’t deployed
Unlicensed Point-to-Point Links: used to connect several cell sites where fiber was not available
Cat M : Water flow and security monitoring at sites along the town canal
LoRa : Water gauge monitoring at remote sites around the town for early flood detection; monitoring of gates for access areas around closed facilities
WiFi 5 : Various legacy devices; lots of in building usage is typical for smart thermostats, cameras, and worker devices (laptops and phones)
WiFi 6 : Under consideration for indoor locations (Library, Office Buildings)